Resources for Micro-politics Research



Frank C.S. Liu 劉正山 (2006 Ph.D, in Political Science, the University of Kansas) is professor and director (2018-) of the Institute in Political Science at the National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU, 國立中山大學), Kaohsiung, Taiwan. His research and teaching interests include comparative politics, voting behavior, public opinion, political psychology, political communication, and research methods. His recent focus is on theories about partisanship and national identification.

Refereed Journal Articles

  • 劉正山. (2019). 厚資料與意義探勘專刊導論 (Introduction of Special Issue on Thick Data and the Meaning Mining Approach). 問題與研究, 50(2), I-VI. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2018). Introduction to the Special Issue — Social media and inquiry into political change: Collaborative approaches to confirmatory and exploratory research in the digital age. Issues & Studies, 54(3), 1802002-1~5[pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2017). 當前政治學門之內外陰影與光明展望 (Bring light back to politics: Reflections on the pitfalls of today’s political science from the Habitual Domains perspective). 習慣領域期刊 (Journal of Habitual Domains), 8(2), 25-45. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., Chang, R. Y. P., & Tan, A. C. (2017). The spiral of deinstitutionalization untangled: An observation about the field opinion within Kuomintang against public opinion during the 2016 presidential election campaign. Issues & Studies, 53(2), 1750002. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2017). Declining news media viewership and the survival of political disagreement. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 29(2), 240–268. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Li, Y. (2017). Generation matters: Taiwan’s perceptions of mainland China and attitudes towards cross-Strait trade talks. Journal of Contemporary China, 26(104), 263–279 [pdf]
  • Lee, I.-C., Su, J. C., Gries, P. H., & Liu, F. C.-S. (2016). When objective group membership and subjective ethnic identification don’t align: How identification shapes intergroup bias through self-enhancement and perceived threat. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 1–16. [pdf]
  • 劉正山, & 蔡艾真. (2016). 隱性選民之政黨意識與其政黨傾向偵測 (Myth of independent voters and the prediction of closet partisans’ party identification in Taiwan). 台灣政治學刊(Taiwan Political Science Review), 20(2), 65-123. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2016). 世代之間政治認同差異的圖像:以多重對應分析結合習慣領域視野進行的探索 (Visualizing habitual domains differences across political generations: Exploring the patterns with multiple correspondence analysis). 習慣領域期刊 (Journal of Habitual Domains), 7(2), 27-50. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2016). Taiwanese voters’ political identification profile, 2013–2014: Becoming one China or creating a new country? Asian Survey, 56(5), 931-957. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2016). 從學佛念佛領略習慣領域的奧趣 (Realizing ideal habitual domains through Pureland School Buddhism’s perspective and practice). 習慣領域期刊 (Journal of Habitual Domains), 7(1), 39-61. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Su, Y.-S. (2015). Adjusting survey response distributions using multiple imputation: A simulation with external validation. 調查研究-方法與應用 (Survey Research), 34, 7-32. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2014). 高雄民眾政治談論溝通網絡的樣貌 (Patterns of the political discussion in Kaohsiung voters’ daily life). 政策與人力管理 (Policy and Personnel Management), 5(1), 49-80. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2014). Using multiple imputation for vote choice data: A comparison across multiple imputation tools. Open Journal of Political Science, 4(2), 39-46. [pdf]
  • Lee, F. L. F., & Liu, F. C.-S. (2014). The impact of political party support on interpersonal political discussion: Survey evidence from two Chinese societies. Asian Journal of Communication, 24(2), 109-127. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Lee, F. L.-F. (2013). Country, national, and pan-national identification in Taiwan and Hong Kong: Standing together as Chinese? Asian Survey, 53(6), [pdf]
  • 劉正山, & 朱淑華. (2012). 不中間的中間選民:以質性方法初探有政黨傾向選民隱藏政黨傾向的原因 (Pure independents’ reconsidered: Using the qualitative approach to explore why independent leaners hide their partisan orientation). 東吳政治學報 (Shoochow Journal of Political Science), 30(4), 177-233. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2012). When Taiwan identifiers embrace ROC: The complexity of state identification in Taiwan. Issues & Studies, 48(2), 1-34. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2011). Validation and agent-based modeling: A practice of contrasting simulation results with empirical data. New Mathematics and Natural Computation, 7(3), 515-541. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., Lin, S. ., You, J., Chen, Y.-T., & Sun, J.-L. (2011). From internal validation to sensitivity test: How grid computing facilitates the construction of an agent-based simulation in social sciences. Proceedings of Science. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2011). 媒體與社群:一個政治傳播學者眼中的脈絡 (News media and communication networks: How a political scientist comprehends the concept of context). 傳播研究與實踐 (Journal of Communication Research and Practice), 1(2), 75-82. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Chiu, A. S.-Y. (2011). Network heterogeneity, partisan defection, and voter turnout: Examine theory with empirical data from Taiwan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(19), 258-272. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2011). Perceived partisan heterogeneity in communication networks and changes in party choice in a national election: Evidence from Taiwan. International Political Science Review, 32(1), 61-78. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2010). Polarized news media and the polarization of the electorate. International Journal of Artificial Life Research, 1(1), 35-50. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2010). Reconstruct partisan support distribution with multiply imputed survey data: A case study of Taiwan’s 2008 presidential election. 調查研究-方法與應用(Survey Research), 24, 135-162. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2010). 當前審議式民主的困境及可能的出路 (The challenges of practicing deliberative democracy in Taiwan and a possible solution). 中國行政評論 (The Chinese Public Administration Review), 17(2), 109-132. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2009). 2008年總統大選競選期間政黨支持者選擇性接觸媒體傾向的分析 (Partisan orientation and selective exposure during Taiwan’s 2008 presidential election campaign). 選舉研究 (Electoral Studies), 16(2), 51-70. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2009). The volatility of national identification: A mix-method pilot study of taiwanese young adults. Asian Social Science, 5(7), 29-40. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2009). Modeling political individuals using the agent-based approach: A preliminary case study on political experts and their limited influence within communication networks. Journal of Computers, 19(4), 8-19. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2008). 代理人基模擬途徑的政治學方法論根基 (The methodological base of applying agent-based modeling to political science research). 政治科學論叢 (Political Science Review), 36, 149-186. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2007). Constrained opinion leader influence in an electoral campaign season: Revisiting the two-step flow theory with multi-agent simulation. Advances in Complex Systems, 10(2), 233-250. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2006). Communication networks and changes in electoral choices: A study of Taiwan’s 2002 mayoral elections. Journal of East Asian Studies, 6(1), 139-158. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2005). A high-tech illusion or a solution? American political scientists’ perspective on E-Democracy. 資訊社會研究 (Journal of Cyber Culture and Information Society), 9, 205-232. [pdf]


  • 劉正山. (2018). 民意調查資料分析的R實戰手冊. 台北:五南文化. [github]

Book Chapters & Other Publications

  • Liao, D., Liu, C.-S., & Chen, B. (2018). Taiwanese nationalism in the age of cross-strait integration: Predominance and pragmatism in the Ma Ying-jeou era. In A. Beckershoff & G. Schubert (Eds.), Assessing the Presidency of Ma Ying-jiu in Taiwan: Hopeful Beginning, Hopeless End? (1 edition, pp. 59–89). London; New York: Routledge. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2018). 從政治科學接軌資料科學:社科學子如何透過工具升級心態. In 余宗基 (Ed.), 軍事社會科學大數據論壇 (pp. 3-21). 台北: 國防大學. [pdf]
  • 彭伊絹, & 劉正山. (2017). 網路社會裡的政治討論、新聞閱聽與投票動能. In 電子商務與網路社會新境界2017 (pp. 328-341). 台北:前程文化. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2016). 書評:Why Elections Fail〔為什麼選舉會失靈〕by Pippa Norris〔皮 帕.諾里斯〕(Cambridge University Press, 2015, Paperback, 256 pp., ISBN 97811070679023). 台灣民主季刊 (Taiwan Democracy Quarterly), 13(1), 189-195. [pdf]
  • 劉正山, 馮浩峻, & 郭明賢. (2015). 社群網路與投票動員:透過網路調查平台進行的實驗觀察. In 電子商務與網路社會新境界2016 (pp. 334-351). 台北: 前程文化. [pdf]
  • 劉正山, & 郭明賢. (2013). 網路世代選民的政治參與及動員策略. In 電子商務新境界2013 (pp. 300-315). 台北: 前程文化. [pdf]
  • 劉正山, & 莊文忠. (2013). 項目無反應資料的多重插補分析. In 黃紀 (Ed.), 台灣選舉與民主化調查(TEDS)方法論之回顧與前瞻 (pp. 275-306). 台北: 五南. [pdf]
  • 劉正山, & 洪永泰. (2013). 2012年總統大選期間年輕網路使用者的投票行為觀察. In 廖達琪 (Ed.), 網路民主:台灣iVoter投票諮詢網站建置紀實 (pp. 61-71). 台北: 五南. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2012). 你可能不知道的媒體影響. 科學月刊, 408, 12-18. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2011, October 8). 同時做個學門內部的專才與跨學門的通才. 跨閱誌, [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2011). 當前審議式民主的困境及可能的出路 (The challenges of practicing deliberative democracy in Taiwan and a possible solution). In 梁文韜 (Ed.), 審議式民主的理想與侷限 (pp. 1-26). 台北: 巨流.
  • 劉正山. (2010). 書評:Whiter Taiwan and Mainland China: National Identity, the State, and Intellectuals〔消融台灣與中國的疆界—族群認同、國家與知識份子〕by Zhidong Hao〔郝志東〕(Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, Hardbook, 232 pp., ISBN 9789622091009). 台灣民主季刊 (Taiwan Democracy Quarterly), 7(2), 227-232.[pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2009). 書評:Shoemaker, Pamela J.; Tankard, James W. & Lasorsa, Dominic L.(2004). How to Build Social Science Theories. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage. 政治科學季評 (Political Science Quarterly), 21, 41-44. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2007). 書評:Mutz, D.C. (2006). Hearing the Other Side: Deliberative Versus Participatory Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press. 政治科學季評 (Political Science Quarterly), 13, 25-29. doi:10.6570/PSQBR.2007.13.4 [pdf]

Conference Presentations

  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2020, May 21). Say No to Chinese identity? Identification (mis)Measurement and overinterpretation in Taiwan. Presented at the Western Political Science Association 2020 annual meeting, Virtual Conference. [pdf]
  • Lams, L., Maekelberghe, C., & Liu, F. C.-S. (2019, October 4). Democracy” in Taiwanese English-language opinion press during presidential electoral periods 2008 / 2016. Presented at the Global Forum on Modern Direct Democracy, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. [pdf]
  • Liao, D., & Liu, F. C.-S. (2019, August 30). How connective populism was made online: A case study of the Han tide in 2018. Presented at the 115th American Political Science Association’s Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • 劉正山. (2019). 國家認同概念的裂解與重組:使用網路調查資料於探索式研究的嘗試與發現. @南區統計學會年會, 台中. 2019.6.21-22 [pptx]
  • Liu, F. C. S. (2019, May 8). Democratic zeal, fake news worries, and moralized preferences: Inspecting Taiwan’s polarization patterns. Presented at the International Seminar of Regional Reflections on the Shape of Democracy, News Performance and Citizen Engagement, Leuven, Belgium [pptx].
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2018, July 25). Taiwan’s democratic hope? How partisans and non-partisans perceive the function of democracy. Presented at the 25th IPSA World Congress of Political Science, Brisbane, AU. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2018, July 11). The second wing of polls: How multiple correspondence analysis using R advances exploring associated attitudes in smaller-data. Presented at the useR! 2018, Brisbane, AU. Retrieved from
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2018). Trust building as a magnet of online survey participation: How an open survey data platform assists theory development in social sciences. Presented at the International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2018 Annual Conference, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2017). 意義探勘怎麼做?談談如何從小資料看見大格局. 台灣資料科學年會 @中研院. 2017.11.9-12. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2017). 政黨認同與民主信念:意義探勘的方法論、工具方法與應用. 台灣政治學會2017年會 @政治大學 2017.11.11-12. [pdf]
  • 劉正山. (2017). 恢復政治學中的實用主義:一個課程改革芻議. 中國政治學會年會 @ 中研院. 2017.10.14-15 [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2017). Democratic hope? How Taiwanese partisans and non-partisans perceive the function of democracy. In Japanese Political Science Association 2017 Annual Conference. Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan. [pdf]
  • Liu, F.C.S.(2017a)。How exploratory political studies advance our understanding about politics: A thick data approach。Chicago, IL, USA。[ppt]
  • Liu, F.C.S.(2017b)。The measurement crisis in Taiwan’s identity politics:  Re-evaluate the conceptualization of national and state identification。Vancouver, BC, Canada。[pdf]
  • Liu, F.C.S.(2016)。The limit of using “unification and independence”  as instrument to gauge Taiwan’s identity politics。Berkeley, CA, USA。[pdf]
  • Liu, F. C. -S., Chang, R. Y. P., & Tan, A. C. (2016). The Spiral of Deinstitutionalization Untangled: An Observation about the Field Opinion within Kuomintang against Public Opinion During the 2016 Presidential Election Campaign. International Workshop on Parties Online, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. [pdf]
  • 劉正山(2016). 政治學中建立厚資料傳統的契機與挑戰. 中國政治學會年會 2016.11.25-26 東華大學 [pdf]
  • 劉正山(2016). 當前政治認同測量題關係釐清後的世代差異圖像的檢視. 台灣政治學會年會 2016.10.22-23 世新大學 [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2016). Transformations of Taiwanese People’s State Identity. Presented at the American Political Science Association (APSA) annual meeting. Sept. 1-4, 2016, Philadelphia, USA. [slides ppt]
  • 劉正山(2016). 世代之爭爭什麼?談談如何從調查資料掘出豐厚的意義. (Fights between Generations for What? How to Mine Thick Meaning from Survey Data). Presented at 2016 Taiwan Data Science Association annual conference. Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.[slides ppt]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2016). Installation of public opinion sensors: How a community-based web survey platform facilitates the collection of qualitative opinion data. Presented at the International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC 2016), Taipei. [html]
  • Liu, F. C. S., Chang, R. Y. P., & Tan, A. C. (2015). The spiral of deinstitutionalization: An observation about the field opinion within Kuomintang against public opinion during the 2016 presidential election campaign. Presented at the the Workshop on Institutionalization and Deinstitutionalization of Party and Political Organizations, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2015). How much should we worry about the polarization effect of polarized news media? Assessment with agent-based simulation. Presented at the Annual Meeting of Computing in Economics and Finance (CEF2015), Taipei.  [slides ppt]
  • 劉正山, & 蔡艾真. (2014). 隱性選民之政黨意識與其政黨傾向偵測 (Partisan Motivated Reasoning and the Prediction of Closet Partisans' Party Identification). Presented at the Taiwan Political Science Association 2014 Annual Meeting, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. [slides ppt]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Li, Y. (2014). Brothers or friends?: Taiwanese voters’ perception about the relationship between the two sides of the taiwan strait. Presented at the Taiwan Political Science Association 2014 Annual Meeting, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. [slides ppt]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2014). Are we family? Inspecting the influence of Taiwanese people’s country, nation, culture, and civil identification on the perception of relationship with “China.” Presented at the West Political Sceicne Association Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, USA. [slides ppt]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Su, Y.-S. (2013). Adjust Survey Response Distributions Using Multiple Imputation: A Simulation with External Validation. Presented at the AAPOR 2013 Annual Conference, Boston, MA, USA. [slides ppt]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2013). Party Identification, Social Networks, and News Media: What Agent-Based Simulation Tells Us about the Dynamics of State Identification and the Formation of Social Cleavage. Presented at the International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC) 2013 Annual Conference, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. [slides pdf] [video interview]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2012). The decline of the politically informed electorate and the survival of political disagreement within communication networks. Presented at the 4th World Congress on Social Simulation, National Cheng-Chi University. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S. (2012). Reconstructing the distribution of voter coice using multiple imputation: A study of TAiwan's 2012 presidential election (以多重插補法重建選民投票偏好的分佈:以2012年總統大選面訪案資料為例. Presented at the 2012 Survey Research Methodology Conference, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. [pdf]
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Lee, F. L. F. (2012). How do you choose between Taiwan and China? An analysis of overlapping state identity and national identity. Presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA.
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Lee, R. C. (2012). Artificial intelligence and the adjustment of survey sample bias: a preliminary application to telephone and web survey. Presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA.
  • Liu, F. C.-S., & Hung, Y.-T. (2012). Profiles and voting patterns of Taiwan “Intelligent Voters”: An observation using web-panel data. Presented at the International Workshop on E-Society Research, National Sun Yet-San University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.
  • Wang, Y.-D., Liaw, T.-M., Liu, F. C.-S., Lin, C.-Y., & Lin, S. C. (2012). Memory effect on the voter model as non-equilibrium statistical systems. Presented at the International Symposium on Grids & Clouds 2012, Academic Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
  • 2011 (with Albert S. Y. Chiu and Alexander C. Tan) "The Patterns of Partisan Defection in the 2011 Mayoral Election." Paper presented at the TEDS 2011 international Conference, Dec. 6-7, Taipei,Taiwan [pdf]
  • 2011. (with Paul Johnson)“News Media Environment, Selective Perception, and the Survival of Preference Diversity within Communication Networks.”Journal of Information Technology & Politics 2011, May 16-17, University of Washington, Seattle, WA [pdf]
  • 2011. (with Simon Lin 林誠謙、Jing-Ya You 尤靖雅、Yu-Ting Chen 陳佑定、Jing-Lung Sun 孫敬倫) "From Internal Validation to Sensitivity Test: How Grid Computing Facilitates the Construction of an Agent-Based Simulation in Social Sciences”. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Grids and Clouds (ISGC 2011) in conjunction with the Open Grid Forum (OGF 31), March 21-25, 2011 at Academia Sinica in Taipei, Taiwan. [Proceedings of Science /DOAJ] [pdf]

Invited Talks

  • 《Youth Salon 職涯嚮導講座》「不同視角看數據—數據資料視覺化」 2019.9.22 @ 勞動部(高雄)青年職涯發展中心 [pptx]
  • ?《探索式民調資料分析與MCA方法》工作坊. 2019.7.3 @國防大學政戰學院 [pptx]
  • “Becoming One China or Creating a New Country? Taiwan Voters’ Political Identification Profile”. 2019.5.10 @ KU Leuven, Belgium. 《China and Globalization》 [pdf]
  • “Democratic Zeal, Fake News Worries, and Moralized Preferences: Inspecting Taiwan’s Polarizatn Patterns”. 2019.5.8 @ KU Leuven, Belgium. 《International Seminar of Regional Reflections on the Shape of Democracy, News Performance and Citizen Engagement》[pdf]
  • 「架起探索式民調望遠鏡,看見能源公投的另一面」 2019.4.19 @工研院 綠能與環境研究所 [pptx]
  • 「社科學子如何透過工具升級心態」2018.11.05 @國防大學政戰學院 [pdf]
  • 「Trust Building as A Magnet of Online Survey Participation: How An Open Survey Data Platform Assists Theory Development in Social Sciences」 2018.10.04 @中研院調研中心 [pptx]
  • 《政治學研究方法的回顧與前瞻》「實證主義下的探索式資料分析:復古?創新?」2018.6.2@政大 [pptx]
  • 《網路經濟學演講及讀書會系列》「網路民調資料的學術及市場潛力」2018.5.25@中研院人社中心 [pptx]
  • 「How and Why (Not) Should We Embrace Big Data? A Reflection from the aspect of Epistemology」2018.5.3 @成功大學政治系 [pptx]
  • 「從學佛念佛領略HD的奧趣」,《25屆習慣領域年會》(2017.12.1@台中) [pdf]
  • 「意義探勘怎麼做?談談如何從小資料看見大格局」《資料科學學會年會》 2017.11.12 @中研院  [pdf]
  • 「Data Science in Political Science :從政治學方法論的角度發掘以資料進行意義探勘的潛力」《「資料科學與社會研究》課程(2017.10.16 @台灣大學經濟系) [pdf]
  • 「大數據時代知識的王座換人坐坐看?談談意義探勘這個專業」《「傳播大數據跨界分享」講座講者 X 「學術研究群暨經典研讀班:傳播大數據」》(2017.9.13 @世新大學) [pdf]
  • 「使用R套件探索問卷調查資料的意義」, R Taiwan2016, Taipei, Dec. 23, 2016. [pdf]
  • 「從探索的角度發掘以問卷調查資料進行意義探勘的潛力」, 中研院調研中心, Dec. 19, 2016. [pdf]
  • 「民意調查怎麼信:手把手帶你看懂新聞報導中的數字陷阱」, 中山大學圖資處科普演講, Dec. 9, 2016. [html]
  • “The limit of using “unification and independence” as instrument to understand Taiwan politics”, presented at the International Workshop on “Election Polling and Democratic Consolidation in Taiwan and Korea, ” UC Berkeley, Dec. 1, 2016. [pdf]

Courses Taught 教授課程

Teaching Portfolio 教學理念

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